User:AtterCleanser44

From The Anglish (Anglisc) Wiki

Pages I have worked on:

Language[edit]

I have come up with a spelling reform, which you can see here.

Tales[edit]

Japanese transliteration[edit]

Just for fun, what would Japanese transliteration be like without French influence on English letters? Some choices such as j for /dʒ/ would have to be changed. This is based on Hepburn romanization.

Basic hiragana:

a i u e o

a

i

u

e

o
k
ka

ki

ku

ke

ko
s
sa

sji

su

se

so
t
ta

tji

tsu

te

to
n
na

ni

nu

ne

no
h
ha

hi

fu

he

ho
m
ma

mi

mu

me

mo
j
ja

ju

jo
r
ra

ri

ru

re

ro
w
wa

o

n

Notes:

  • /j/ is represented as j (occasionally used in Old English as consonantal i).
  • Sh for /ʃ/ shows French influence. Sj is used since /sj/ can result in /ʃ/, as shown in the development of English sure.
  • Ch for /tʃ/ is from French. Tj is used since it aligns with the rest of the t-row, and /tj/ can result in /tʃ/, as shown in the development of English nature.

Diacritics:

a i u e o
g
ga

gi

gu

ge

go
z
za

dji

zu

ze

zo
d
da

dji

zu

de

do
b
ba

bi

bu

be

bo
p
pa

pi

pu

pe

po

Notes:

  • As there is no native letter for initial /z/ (as the sound was only an allophone of /s/ in Old English and does not appear word-initially in standard English except in loanwords and interjections or words that originated as such), a new letter has to be used to represent initial /z/. Latin z is a good Anglish alternative since it simply represented /ts/, which is pointless to show in English, so it can be repurposed here.
  • Since j for /dʒ/ is from French, and initial /dʒ/ was established in English because of French influence, there is no native letter for initial /dʒ/. Dj is a good representation since /dj/ can result in /dʒ/, as shown in the development of English soldier.
  • For じ, zji is the specific romanization to use, as it is simply the voiced form of し (sji).
  • For づ, dzu is the specific romanization to use, as it is simply the voiced form of つ (tsu).

Digraphs:

ja ju jo
k きゃ
kja
きゅ
kju
きょ
kjo
s しゃ
sja
しゅ
sju
しょ
sjo
t ちゃ
tja
ちゅ
tju
ちょ
tjo
n にゃ
nja
にゅ
nju
にょ
njo
h ひゃ
hja
ひゅ
hju
ひょ
hjo
m みゃ
mja
みゅ
mju
みょ
mjo
r りゃ
rja
りゅ
rju
りょ
rjo

Digraphs with diacritics:

ja ju jo
g ぎゃ
gja
ぎゅ
gju
ぎょ
gjo
z じゃ
dja
じゅ
dju
じょ
djo
d ぢゃ
dja
ぢゅ
dju
ぢょ
djo
b びゃ
bja
びゅ
bju
びょ
bjo
p ぴゃ
pja
ぴゅ
pju
ぴょ
pjo

Notes:

  • For the z-row, the specific romanizations are zja, zju, and zjo, as zj represents the voiced form of sj.

Grammar[edit]

Pronouns[edit]

Nominative Accusative Dependent possessive Independent possessive Reflexive
1st singular I me my mine myself
2nd singular thou thee thy thine thyself
3rd singular masculine he him his his himself
3rd singular feminine oo her her hers herself
3rd singular neuter it it its its itself
1st plural we us our ours ourselves
2nd plural ye you your yours yourselves
3rd plural hy hem her hers hemselves

Notes:

  • Oo is from OE hēo, the feminine personal pronoun. I have chosen not to use the regular reflex of OE hēo, since it would have become he, and its homophony with the masculine would be troublesome. Moreover, she itself is dubious in its origin and likely shows Norse influence in its development. The reflex oo results from stress shift in the diphthong in hēo and is attested in some British dialects that show /h/-loss in general. In my standard Anglish, oo was originally an unstressed variant of hoo that was generalized to avoid homophony with who since having a personal pronoun and an interrogative be identical in sound would cause quite a bit of confusion. An unstressed form can be expected to show loss of initial /h/, as shown by it (originally an unstressed form of now-dialectal hit) and colloquial pronunciations of unstressed pronouns such as he and her. This is similar to how an originally dialectal pronunication of one (which formerly rhymed with bone) ended up becoming standard (and thus rhyming with run) likely because it helped avoid confusion with own.
  • All the plural forms for the third person are the native ones; the th- set is from Norse.
    • Hy is regularly gotten from the OE nominative .
    • Hem is from OE heom, and in fact, it survives up to this day as 'em, which was later reanalyzed as a weak form of them.
    • Her is from Middle English here. Though it would be nice to have it distinct from feminine her, it seems that the two forms were so hopelessly confused with each other that it is unrealistic that they would have been kept apart. In any case, context should generally be enough to let one see whether her is feminine or plural, and having the feminine and the plural be the same is not completely unprecedented. For example, German ihr is used as the possessive for both the feminine singular and the plural.

Verbs[edit]

In my ideal Anglish, this is how verbs are conjugated.

Abbreviations:

  1. ind. - indicative
  2. subj. - subjunctive
Regular verbs (e.g., cook)
Person / Number Present tense Past tense
1st singular cook cooked
2nd singular cookst (ind.), cook (subj.) cookedst
3rd singular cookth (ind.), cook (subj.) cooked
Plural cook cooked
Imperative
cook
Present participle
cooking
Past participle
cooked
Irregular verbs (e.g., fall)
Person / Number Present tense Past tense
1st singular fall fell
2nd singular fallst (ind.), fall (subj.) fellst
3rd singular fallth (ind.), fall (subj.) fell
Plural fall fell
Imperative
fall
Present participle
falling
Past participle
fallen
Be
Person / Number Present tense Past tense
1st singular am (ind.), be (subj.) was (ind.), were (subj.)
2nd singular art (ind.), be (subj.) wast (ind.), wert (subj.)
3rd singular is (ind.), be (subj.) was (ind.), were (subj.)
Plural are (ind.), be (subj.) were
Imperative
be
Present participle
being
Past participle
been

Archaic inflections and inflectional affixes include:

  1. sind for the plural present ind. of be
  2. sie for the present subj. of be
  3. -en for the infinitive
  4. -en for the plural present and past ind. and subj.
  5. -eth for the plural imperative
  6. -end for the present participle
  7. y- for the past participle

-est

-est is said with syncope. When does syncope apply?

  • After vowels and (historical) /r/, e.g., fleest, playst, bearst.
  • After the voiceless consonants /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, and /θ/, e.g., sleepst, heatst, lockst, laughst, unearthst.
  • After /l/ and nasals, e.g., feelst, swimst, cleanst, singst.

When does syncope not apply?

  • After sibilants, e.g., kissest, risest, washest, sabatogest, teachest, singest.
  • After a consonant cluster with a sibilant, e.g., burstest, gaspest, askest.
  • After the voiced consonants /b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, and /ð/, e.g., grabbest, heedest, loggest, leavest, breathest.

After /d/, however, -st is always used in certain forms such as hadst, couldst, and the past tense ending -edst. In these forms, dst is pronounced as /dst/ (but it may be easier and more natural for speakers to say it as /tst/). The special inflections are:

  • dost, didst
  • hast, hadst
  • canst, couldst
  • wilt, wouldst
  • shalt, shouldst
  • saist, saidst

For must, either the bare form must or the inflected form mustest (which was used in Middle English) is acceptable.

-eth

Nearly the same rules for syncope apply to -eth. Syncope applies:

  • After vowels and (historical) /r/, e.g., flieth, showth, shearth.
  • After the voiceless consonants /p/, /t/, /k/, and /f/, e.g., trapth, biteth, sinkth, puffth
  • After /l/ and nasals, e.g., fillth, loomth, rainth, ringth.

Syncope does not apply:

  • After sibilants, e.g., misseth, freezeth, thrasheth, arbitrageth, toucheth, bridgeth.
  • After the voiced consonants /b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, and /ð/, e.g., dubbeth, buildeth, cloggeth, bereaveth, sootheth.
  • After /θ/, e.g, frotheth.

y > u[edit]

Old English /y/ typically became unrounded and became /i/ in Middle English. In the West Midlands dialects, however, /y/ was kept, and this was spelled with u (a French convention). This sound was normally unrounded later, but some spelling variants showed the vowel being retracted to /u/ instead, in which case the French u was kept in the spelling. That this sound change occurred is proven by Middle English spellings using o for /u/, e.g., croch for crucche (crutch). Most OE words with /y/ show /ɪ/ in their modern forms, with a few exceptions having become standard.

In some OE words, /i/ was rounded to /y/ from influence of nearby consonants, e.g., micel > mycel, the source of much.

OE bysig became busy, with the spelling showing the West Midlands form, but the modern pronunciation shows the expected standard pronunciation, so the word would be better spelled as bizzy (compare with dizzy < OE dysig).

OE byrgan became bury, with the spelling showing the West Midlands form, but the modern pronunciation comes from the Kentish variant, so the word would be better spelled as berry (compare with merry < OE myrge).

Before preconsonantal and final /r/, /ɪ/ and /ʊ/ converged later, so the difference is merely in spelling now, i.e., it can be spelled as ir, ur, or (after w) or. The ur words are perhaps originally dialectal variants that became standard, but in Early New English, ir, er, and ur were mixed up in the spellings of some words, e.g., churl (< OE ceorl), kernel (< OE cyrnel). Hence, it is impossible to tell for sure whether a word with ur shows an originally dialectal pronunciation or merely the standard pronunciation showing ur in the spelling instead of expected ir. Nonetheless, these words are included here anyway.

There are a few derivative words showing y in OE as part of umlaut, but show u in their modern forms. This is due to influence of related words showing no umlaut, e.g., OE syndrig would have become *sindry, but from influence of related words such as the now-obsolete adverb sunder, the word became sundry instead.

It seems that the following environments encouraged the retraction to /u/:

  • Near /ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /dʒ/, e.g., shut, clutch, cudgel.
  • Near a labial, e.g., muck.
  • Near /r/, e.g., thrust, hurdle.
OE form NE form
blyscan blush
byrg (city) -bury
byrþen burden
clyccan clutch
crycc crutch
cycgel cudgel
cyrice church
hyrdel hurdle
hyrst (grove) hurst
mycel much
rysc rush
scytel shuttle
scyttan shut
swylc such
þryccan (press) thrutch
þrysce thrush
wyrcan work
wyrm worm
wyrsa worse
wyrst worst
wyrt wort

Note also the Old Norse borrowings muck (< ON myki) and thrust (< ON þrysta).

Notes:

  • OE byrg was the dative singular and the plural nominative and accusative of burg (city), which became borough. OE byrg as an independent word would have normally become *birry, but it only survives as -bury, an element in place names such as Canterbury; -bury represents a fossilized dative, as place names were often used in the dative.
  • OE mycel became ME muchel, but this was later shortened to much.
  • Rush here refers to the plant; rush meaning move forward is apparently from French.
  • OE swylc became ME swulch, which then showed loss of w because of the following u, as well as loss of l, whence the modern form such.
  • The spelling of work shows the vowel from the OE verb wyrcan, but the OE noun weorc may also have been the source of the spelling work, as shown by worth < OE weorþ.

w forms[edit]

In Old English, in the a-stems and ō were two subclasses: wa-stems and -stems. The notable things about their declensions are:

  • For masculine wa-stems, all inflections except the nominative singular and the accusative singular had w before the ending.
  • For neuter wa-stems, all inflections except the nominative and the accusative (in both the singular and the plural) had w before the ending.
  • For wo-stems (which are feminine), all inflections except the nominative singular had w before the ending.

Here are three examples:

bearu (grove, masculine)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative bearu bearwas
Accusative bearu bearwas
Genitive bearwes bearwa
Dative bearwe bearwum
searu (device, neuter)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative searu searu
Accusative searu searu
Genitive searwes searwa
Dative searwe searwum
sinu (sinew, feminine)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative sinu sinwa
Accusative sinwe sinwa
Genitive sinwe sinwa
Dative sinwe sinwum

These declensions would not last unaltered. Even in Old English, some nouns had already leveled out the w throughout the declension, as shown with strēaw (straw) and þēow (slave). In Middle English, there was even further leveling in favor of the base form or the forms with w.

Interestingly, bearu appears to be the only masculine wa-stem, so all other examples are neuter or feminine. The noun bearu is not attested in Middle English except in one late attestation and in names with variants such as barewe and berwe, so in this case, the w forms clearly won out. This is not surprising since most of the inflections had w.

Neuter nouns:

OE form NE form
bealu (evil) bale
cnēo, cnēow (knee) knee
cwudu (cud) cud
glēo, glēow (entertainment) glee
hlēo, hlēow (shelter) lee
melu (flour) meal
searu (device) *sare
smeoru (grease) smear
teoru (tar) tar
trēo, trēow (tree) tree

Feminine nouns:

OE form NE form
lǣs (pasture) leaze, leasow
mǣd (meadow) mead, meadow
sceadu (shadow) shade, shadow
sinu (sinew) sinew

Ablative adverbs[edit]

In Old English, there was an adverbial ending -an that denoted motion from a certain place. For example, westan meant from the west. Three words originally with this ending survive: hence (OE heonan), thence (OE þanan), and whence (OE hwanon). The -s adverbial genitive ending, which is now spelled -ce, was later added to these words.

Below is a list of ablative adverbs. It is assumed here that the adverbial genitive ending would be attached to them.

OE word OE base NE word
ēastan ēast *eastence
heonan hēr hence
hwanon hwǣr whence
norþan norþ *northence
sūþan sūþ *southence
þanan þǣr thence
westan west *westence