Younger Futhorc

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This is a modern runic alphabet for writing Modern English. It is named Younger Futhorc since it is based on Futhorc, which wrote Old English and Old Frisian. One of the main goals when creating this system was to not deviate from runic precedent needlessly like so many other modern runic alphabets do; only two runes have been completely repurposed, no new runes were invented, and no characters were borrowed from outside of Futhorc.

[f] / [v] wolf / wolves ~ untouched
[u] / [ʊ/ɵ] root / put ~ untouched
[θ] / [ð] sheath / sheathe ~ untouched
[oʊ/əʊ] go tweaked
[ɹ] / [ɝ] road / tar tweaked
[tʃ] chin ~ untouched
[j] year ~ untouched
[w] win ~ untouched
[h] hail ~ untouched
[n] need ~ untouched
[ɪ] billhook tweaked
[j] year ~ untouched
[x] ugh! ~ untouched
[p] plot ~ untouched
[ks] / [gz] rex / exit ~ untouched
[s] / [z] cats / dogs ~ untouched
[t] toad ~ untouched
[b] birch ~ untouched
[ɛ] edge tweaked
[m] man ~ untouched
[l] law ~ untouched
[ŋ] / [ŋg] song / finger ~ untouched
[d] day ~ untouched
[ʌ] son repurposed
[ɑ/ɒ] father tweaked
[æ/a] fat ~ untouched
[i] sea repurposed
[y] N/A ~ untouched
[k] king ~ untouched
[g] gore ~ untouched
ᚳᚷ [dʒ] / [ʒ] bridge assumed
ᚻᚹ [ʍ] which ~ untouched
ᛁᚱ [ɪɝ] sear tweaked
ᛋᚳ [ʃ] fish ~ untouched
ᛖᚱ [ɝ/ɜ] bird repurposed
ᛖᚷ [eɪ/ɛi] grey ~ untouched
ᚪᚢ [ɔ] awe repurposed
ᚫᚢ [aʊ] mouse assumed
ᚫᚷ [aɪ/əɪ] chai ~ untouched
ᛠᚱ [i.ɝ] seer repurposed


  • Not everyone speaks English the same way, so tweak the rules however you find necessary.
  • Words should be spelled according to their stressed pronunciations, not their unstressed pronunciations. For example, I drop [d] in words like land in unstressed speech, but in stressed speech where I try to pronounce things "right" I will add the [d] back. That being so, the stressed pronunciation of land for me has [d] so I should spell it ᛚᚫᚾᛞ.
  • [ə] and [ɨ] are represented with whatever vowels they are "supposed" to be when stressed. So the [ə] at the beginning of about is spelled with ᚪ while the [ə] made by the second ⟨o⟩ in photograph is spelled with ᚩ.
  • ᛋ has the manuscript variant shape ᚴ, and ᛡ has the manuscript variant shape ᛄ
  • For non-rhotic kinds of English, ᚱ can indicate vowel length; in Received Pronunciation ᛣᚪᚱ is /kɑː/.
  • ᛉ is only [ks] and [gz] in morphemes. So sax is ᛋᚫᛉ, but sacks is ᛋᚫᛣᛋ. This mimics how the Anglo-Saxons usually used X in their Latin-based alphabet, and how we still use it today.
  • ᚷ can be /j/ before ᛁ, ᛖ, ᚫ, ᛠ. To represent /j/ before ᚢ, ᚩ, ᛟ, ᚪ one can use ᚷᛁ (Franks Casket style) or ᛡ (Shropham Lead Plaque style).



There once was a man from Peru who dreamt he was eating his shoe. He woke with a fright in the middle of the night to find that his dream had come true.


When Alfred our king drove the Dane from this land he seeded an oak with his own kingly hand.


We hold this truth to be selfsuttle: that all men are born even.